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The Global History of Portugal

From Pre-History to the Modern World

Carlos Fiolhais is Full Professor of Physics at the University of Coimbra and Historian of Science.

José Eduardo Franco is Researcher-Coordinator and Full Professor at Universidade Aberta.

José Pedro Paiva is Full Professor of Early Modern History at the University of Coimbra.

In the Series
The Portuguese-Speaking World: Its History, Politics and Culture

For thousands of years Portugal has been the point of arrival and departure for peoples, cultures, languages, ideas, fashions, behaviours, beliefs, institutions and produce. While its miscegenation and global multimodal activity enriched the world in many ways, it also provoked violence, war, suffering and resistance. The Global History of Portugal contains 93 chapters grouped into five parts: Pre-history, Antiquity, Middle Ages, Early Modern period and Modern World. Each chapter begins with an event, interpreted in the light of global history. Each part opens with an introduction, offering a perspective of the period in question.

The three Editors, five Scientific Coordinators (João Luís Cardoso, Carlos Fabião, Bernardo Vasconcelos e Sousa, Cátia Antunes and António Costa Pinto) and ninety Contributors offer a critical and analytical synthesis of the history that originated in Portuguese territory or passed through it, stimulating the process of encounter and dis-encounter in today's global world. The history presented gives special attention to the world that moulded Portugal and the Portuguese, and to the ways Portugal configured the world. It seeks to identify and understand the transversal entanglements of historic impact and the impulses these gave to the construction of Portugal and the world. Contemporary reflection and academic scholarship on the global history of leading nations has stimulated a rethinking of the past and a more comprehensive recognition of legacy. Historians can no longer overlook the wider world with which their country of investigation has interacted. Portugal’s role in the dynamic circulation of peoples and ideas makes it global history not only unique by way of what took place but also in terms of a potential academic template for better understanding of how the past shapes the present, and more particularly the importance of acknowledging a country’s past historic mis-steps and how these are dealt with by contemporary populations.

Hardback ISBN: 978-1-78976-103-0
Hardback Price: £95/$125
Release Date: November 2021
Paperback ISBN: 978-1-78976-104-7
Paperback Price: £34.95/$44.95
Release Date: February 2022 
Page Extent / Format: 460 pp. 246 x 171 mm
Illustrated: No




General Introduction                                                                                          

Carlos Fiolhais, José Eduardo Franco and José Pedro Paiva


Part I Prehistory and Proto–history


Introduction to Part I – From Modern Humans to the Advent of Writing

João Luís Cardoso


240,000–10,000 BC – From Neanderthal Man to Homo sapiens              

João Cascalheira and Nuno Bicho


5500–4500 BC – The Spread of Farming and Domestication of Animals     

António Faustino Carvalho


2700–1800 BC – The Bell Beaker Question: Origin and Diffusion During the

Third Millennium BC                                                                            

João Luís Cardoso


2000–800 BC – Long–distance Trading in the Bronze Age                                                 

Raquel Vilaça


Ninth to Fifth Centuries BC – The Phoenicians in Portugal                                              

Ana Margarida Arruda



Part II Antiquity


Introduction to Part II – From the Roman Empire to Gothic Iberia                       

Carlos Fabião


218–19 BC – The Romans in the Iberian Peninsula: From Conquered Land to Imperial Province     

Carlos Fabião


155–139 BC – The Lusitanian Wars and the True Viriathus                                 

Amílcar Guerra


2nd Century BC to the Fourth Century AD – The Marketplace in the Roman Empire

Catarina Viegas


139 BC–14 AD – Aligning with the Empire: Language                                          

Amílcar Guerra


First Century BC – Where Does the World End?                                                  

Amílcar Guerra


First Century BC – The Emergence of Cities                                                        

Catarina Viegas


80 BC – The Impact of the Roman Civil Wars                                                      

Carlos Fabião


16–15 BC – Founding of the Roman Province of Lusitania                                   

Catarina Viegas


First Century BC to the Second Century AD: Environmental Threats                    

Catarina Viegas


17–23 – The Tides According to Strabo                                                  

Amílcar Guerra


First Century – Between Seas: A Historical and Geographical Constant                            

Carlos Fabião


Fourth Century – Administrative Reform of the Roman Empire              

Pedro C. Carvalho


409–411 – The Arrival of the Barbarians                                                

Pedro C. Carvalho


Second Half of the Fourth Century – A United Peninsula Under the Goths           

Carlos Fabião



Part III The Middle Ages


Introduction to Part III – From the Advent of Islam to the Conquest of Ceuta                                          

Bernardo Vasconcelos e Sousa


711 – Confrontation and Interaction: Islam in the Iberian Peninsula       

Hermenegildo Fernandes


844 – What Remained from the Time of the Vikings?                 

Hélio Pires


882 – Evolution of the Handwritten Text                                   

Maria José Azevedo Santos


1089 – From Romanesque to Gothic: Aesthetic Forms                           

José Custódio Vieira da Silva


1128 – Influences and External Relations in a County That Gave Birth to a Kingdom

Luís Carlos Amaral


1128 – Fighting in the Name of Faith: Military Orders in Portugal           

Luís Filipe Oliveira


1140 – Afonso Henriques, Portugalensium Rex, Son of Theresa of Léon

and Henry of Burgundy                                                                        

António Resende de Oliveira and Bernardo Vasconcelos e Sousa


1146 – Marrying for Love of the Crown                                                 

Manuela Santos Silva


1147 – Lisbon: From Conquest to Capital                                                           

Amélia Aguiar Andrade and Maria João Branco


1153 – A Religion Without Borders: Religious Orders                             

João Luís Inglês Fontes


1174 – The Language Spoken and Written by the Portuguese                             

António Manuel Ribeiro Rebelo


1196 – From Latin Literature to Portuguese Literature                            

António Resende de Oliveira


1231 – From Fernando Martins to Saint Anthony of Lisbon: A Saint for All the World

Eleonora Lombardo and José Francisco Meirinhos


1276 – Pope John XXI, Portuguese Clergyman and Universal Pastor                    

Armando Norte


1290 – A University that Would Develop a World Profile                          

Saul António Gomes


1293 – The Merchants' Guild: The Ports, the King and Portuguese Trade within European Networks        

Amândio J. M. Barros


1297 – The Treaty of Alcañices and Establishment of a Border with Neighbouring Threats                       

 J. A. de Sottomayor–Pizarro


1348 – The Black Death: The Near "Global" Plague                                            

Maria Helena da Cruz Coelho


1385 – Aljubarrota: An Ancestral Enemy, an Old Alliance and Reinforcement of the Country's Identity     

João Gouveia Monteiro


1415 – New Horizons: The Conquest of Ceuta and the Sea                                 

Luís Miguel Duarte



Part IV The Early Modern Period


Introduction to Part IV – Of Settlement and Slavery to Royal Exile                                               

Cátia Antunes


1425 – Madeira: Settlement, Sugar and Slaves                                      

Mariana P. Candido


1434 – Rounding Cape Bojador: New Horizons                                      

Amélia Polónia


1468 – The Guinea Monopoly: Pluricontinental Economic Development  

Susana Münch Miranda


1494 – The Treaty of Tordesillas: A New Vision of the Atlantic and Sharing of the Seas                

Francisco Contente Domingues


1496 –Expulsion of the Jews: The Diaspora of the Diasporas                  

José Alberto Rodrigues da Silva Tavim


1498–1500 – Calicut and Porto Seguro: The Birth of Pluricontinentalism 

Edgar Cravo Bertrand Pereira


1502 – Asilah, Ceuta, Tangier and Ksar es–Seghir: Global Phenomenon of the Misericórdia Brotherhoods  

Isabel dos Guimarães Sá


1502 – The Cantino Planisphere: A Model of the World                          

Joaquim Alves Gaspar


1509 – Santarém Rice and the Globalisation of Food Products                            

Isabel Drumond Braga


1514 – A Religion for the World: Royal Patronage and a Pluricontinental Diocese

José Pedro Paiva


1517 – The Slave Revolt in São Tomé                                                     

Filipa Ribeiro da Silva


1519 – Ferdinand Magellan and the First Voyage Around the World                   

Rui Manuel Loureiro


1536 – The Inquisition Arrives in Portugal                                                          

Francisco Bethencourt


1540 – The Jesuits and the First Global Knowledge Database                                            

José Eduardo Franco


1541 – Mazagan: An Architectural Revolution                                       

Walter Rossa


1563 – Colóquios dos Simples, or the Globalisation of the Printing Press and Knowledge             

Palmira Fontes da Costa


1572 – Camões: Arms, Letters and the Clash of Civilisations                               

Diogo Ramada Curto


1580 – Union of Crowns, Union of the World                                         

Rafael Valladares


1582 – The Gregorian Calendar: Globalising the Measurement of Time               

Henrique Leitão and José Madruga Carvalho


1614 – The Scientific Revolution Reaches Asia                                       

Carlos Fiolhais


1640–1648 –The Luso-Spanish Split and the Westphalia Treaties: A Changed World Order?

Pedro Cardim


1645 – The Pernambucan Revolt and the Rejection of Globalism            

Bruno Miranda and Kleber Clementino


1680 – The Founding of Colonia del Sacramento                                    

Tamar Herzog


1703 – The Methuen Treaty                                                                 

Cátia Antunes and João Paulo Salvado


1717 – The Palace of Mafra, or a Global Vision of the Baroque                            

Luís de Moura Sobral


1727 – The Arrival of Freemasonry in Portugal                                       

António Ventura


1732 – Preoccupations of the Overseas Council: Decline of the Portuguese Diaspora in the World

Noelle Richardson


1755 – History and the Great Lisbon Earthquake                                   

Mariana Françozo


1756 – The Demarcation of the Port Wine Region                                              

Gaspar Martins Pereira


1759–1773 – The Suppression of the Society of Jesus                                        

José Vicente Serrão


1807 – The transfer of the Portuguese royal court to Brazil

Laura de Mello e Souza



Part V The Modern Period


Introduction to Part V — From the Independence of Brazil to Portuguese Global Emigration

António Costa Pinto                                                                             


1822 — Brazilian Independence: The Global and the Specific                               

Fernando Catroga


1823 — King Miguel and Miguelism      

Maria Alexandre Lousada


1834 — The Institutionalisation of Protestantism in Portugal                              

Timóteo Cavaco


1867 — Abolition of the Death Penalty                                                 

Rui de Figueiredo Marcos


1884 — Portugal at the Berlin Conference                                                         

Hugo Gonçalves Dores and Miguel Bandeira Jerónimo


1908 — The International Impact of the Regicide of Carlos the First       

Paulo Jorge Fernandes


1910 — The Republican Revolution                                                       

José Miguel Sardica


1911 — Holidays and Tourism: From Madeira to the Algarve                              

Alberto Vieira


1914 — Amadeo, the Delaunays and Modernism                                               

Joana Brites


1916 — Portugal and the Great War: Victory with a Taste of Defeat                   

Nuno Severiano Teixeira


1917 — Fátima, the Global Shrine                                                                     

Marco Daniel Duarte


1933 — Salazarism and the Interwar Dictatorships                                            

Rita Almeida de Carvalho


1934 — Cod: Global Connections within the National Myth                                

Álvaro Garrido


1940 — A Portuguese World on Display                                                

Annarita Gori


1949 — Egas Moniz, a Nobel Prizewinner who Founded a School           

Carlos Fiolhais


1949 — Portugal and NATO: Reencountering an Atlantic Option            

Nuno Severiano Teixeira


1955 — Portugal in the "World Parliament"                                                      

Fernando Martins


1961 — Portugal as Pariah State During the Late Colonial Wars                           

Bruno Cardoso Reis


1966 — Eusébio, Lusotropicalism and the Globalisation of Sporting Idols

Nuno Domingos


1974 — The 25th of April: Transition to Democracy                                

Maria Inácia Rezola


1986 — Portugal's Membership of the European Economic Community 

José Luís Cardoso


1988 — The Internationalisation of Portuguese Literature: Pessoa, Saramago and Lobo Antunes 

Onésimo Teotónio Almeida


2011 — Portuguese Emigration: Global Interconnections                                   

Rui Carita



The Editors and Contributors



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